Kepemimpinan Kepala Sekolah, Pengaruhnya terhadap Kompetensi, Motivasi dan Kepuasan Kerja Guru serta Implikasinya pada Kinerja Guru

  • A Jajang W. Mahri Fakultas Pendidikan Ilmu Ekonomi dan Bisnis UPI Bandung
Keywords: Principal’s Leadership, Competency, Job Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Performance

Abstract

The problem in this study is that the vocational teachers in Indonesia have not been able to demonstrate the adequate work performance.  The phenomenon of high and low performance of teachers is predicted by variables that affect it, such as teacher competence, work motivation and job satisfaction, all of which are driven by the variable of principal’s leadership.  This study used survey approach with the type of explanation verification research on 366 teachers. 

Data analysis and interpretation of the results used descriptive analysis and verification (SEM).  The result of descriptive analysis indicate that: (a) task-oriented behavior is more prominent in the leadership of principals than relationship-oriented behavior, (b) Not all teachers have a standard of professional competence, (c) Not all teachers demonstrate aspects of the high valence and instrumentality in supporting their performance, (d) There is still a gap between the actual conditions of high employment and expectations about the job in supporting the performance of teachers, mainly due to the dissatisfaction of teachers with the reward system, (e) The performance of teachers has not been fully demonstrated commitment to students and students’ learning, professional knowledge, teaching practice, leadership and school community, and continued professional learning.

Results of verification analysis show that the principal’s leadership has a direct impact on teacher competence, work motivation of teachers, and teacher job satisfaction. However, the principal’s leadership does not imply directly to the performance of teachers, but through teacher competence, work motivation of teachers, and teacher job satisfaction. In this way, the principal’s leadership may act more as a driver or enabler that allows an increase in competence, motivation and job satisfaction of teachers so that in turn it would improve teacher the performance.

References

Akhtar, Shafqat Naeem, Muhammad Amir Hashmi and Syed Imtiaz Hussain Naqvi. 2009. A comparative study of job satisfaction in public and private school teachers at secondary level. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2010, Pages 4222-4228.
Ainsworth, Murray, Neville Smith, and Anne Millership. 2002. Managing Performance Managing People: Understanding and Improving Team Performance. Printed in Australia by Griffin Press.
Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara. 1993. Manajemen Sumberdaya Manusia Perusahaan. Bandung. PT Remaja Rosdakarya.
Bambang Budi Wiyono, 2000. Gaya Kepemimpinan Kepala Sekolah dan Semangat Kerja Guru dalam Melaksanakan Tugas Jabatan di Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Filsafat, Teori dan Praktik Kependidikan. Universitas Negeri Malang.
Battilanaa J, Mattia Gilmartinb, Metin Sengulc, Anne-Claire Pached, Jeffrey A. Alexandere. 2010. Leadership competencies for implementing planned organizational change. The Leadership Quarterly Volume 21, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 422-438
Benardin, H. John and Joyce E. A. Russell. 2003. Human Resources Management: An Expriential Approach. McGraw-Hill. Series In Management. New York.
Becker, Brian E., Mark A. Huselid, and Dave Ulrich. 2001. The Scorecard Linking People, Strategy, and Performance. Harvard Business School Press. Boston. Massachusetts.
Blumberg, M and C. D. Pringle. 1982. The Missing Opportunity in Oragnization Research: Some Implications for A Theory of Work Performance. Academy of Management Review. October. p. 560-580.
Buller, P. 1986. The Team Building-Task Performance Relation: Some Conceptual and Methodological Refinements. Group and Organization Studies. 11(3). p. 140-162.
Burhanuddin, Imron, Ali, Maisyaroh. 2002. Manajemen Pendidikan. Wacana, Proses dan Aplikasinya di Sekolah. Malang: Universits Negeri Malang.
Carrell, Michael R., Norbert F. Elbert, and Robert D. Hatfield. 1995. Human Resource Management. Global Strategies for Managing A Diverse Work Force. Fifth Edition. Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs.
Cascio, Wayne F. 2003. Managing Human Resource. Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits. Sixth Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., New York.
Chan, W.. 2000. “Relational demography, communication and perceptual congruence in supervisor-subordinate dyad and subordinate job satisfaction”, University of South Australia, Adelaide.
Churchill. Gilbert A and Iacobucci Dawn. 2005. Marketing Research: Methodological Foundation. Ninth Edition, Thomson South-Western.
Choa, Jeewon, Fred Dansereau. 2010. Are transformational leaders fair? A multi-level study of transformational leadership, justice perceptions, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 21, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 409-421
Corno, Lyn, Lee J. Cronbach, Haggai Kupermintz, David F. Lohman, Ann W. Poteus, and Joan E. Talbert. 2002. Remaking The Concept of Aptitude. Exetnding The Legacy of Richard E. Snow. Edited By Lee J. Cronbach. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Cooper and Schindler. 2003. Business Research Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-115160-5.
Cummings, G.G.. 2009. Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.08.006 (In Press)
Daniel, Yvette. 2008. “Principal Leadership in New Teacher Induction: Becoming Agent of Change”. International Journal of Education Policy & Leadership, Vol 3 p. 3.
Davis, Keith and John W. Newstroom, 1997, Organizational Behavior, Human Behavior at Work, 10th Edition, International Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Davis, Keith and John W. Newstrom. 2002. Human Behavior at Work: Organizational Behavior, McGraw-Hill. Series In Management, New Delhi.
Davis, G.A. & Thomas, M.A.. 1989. Effective Schools and Effective Teachers. Massachusetts: Ally and Bacon.
Dinas Pendidikan Kota Bandung. 2010. Rencana Strategi Pendidikan Kota Bandung 2010, Bandung.
Flippo, Edwin B.. 1986, Personnel Management 6th, McGraw-Hill Inc., Singapore.
Fraenkel & Wallen, 1993. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, 3rd Edition). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Gardner, J. W.. 1990. On Leadership. New York: Free Press.
Gibson, J. & Jamses, D. Jr.. 1996. Decent Work and Productivity in Srilangka. International Labour Conference. 87th Session.
Gibson, James L., John M. Ivancevich, and James H. Donnelly. 2006. Organization Behavior-Structure-Process, 7Ed, Erwin Homewood. Boston
Hamdani Bakran Adz-Dzakiey. 2007, Psikologi Kenabian (Menghidupkan Potensi dan Kepribadian Kenabian Dalam Diri). Yogjakarta: Pustaka Al-Furqan.
Harvey, Don and Robert Bruce Bowin. 1996. Human Resource management An Experiental Approach. Prentice-Hall International Inc. London.
Hannon, Paul D., Dean Patton, and Sue Marlow. 2000. Transactional Relationships: Developing Management Competencies for Effectiveness Small Firm Stakeholder Interactions. Education + Training. Vol. 42. No. 4/5. p. 237-245.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, P., 1995. Management of Organizational Behavior Utilizing Human Resources. 9th Edition. London: Prentice-Hall International Editions.
Hodgetts, Richard M. and Fred Luthan. 1994. International Management. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill. New York.
Horton, Sylvia. 2000. Introduction-The Competency Movement: Its Origins and Impact on The Public Sector. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. Vol 13. No. 4. p. 306-318.
Hoogh, Annebel H.B., Deanne N. Den Hartog. 2008. Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader's social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates' optimism: A multi-method study.
Hughes, L.R, Ginnett, R.C and Curphy, G.J.. 2006. Leadership Enhancing the Lessons of Experience (5th ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill International Edition.
Idochi Anwar dan Yayat Hidayat Amir. 2000. Administrasi Pendidikan: Teori, Konsep & Issu. Bandung: Program Pasca Sarjana UPI Bandung.
Jex, Step M., 2002. Organization Psychology, John Wiley, Canada.
Karslıa, Mehmet D. and Hale İskender, 2009. To examine the effect of the motivation provided by the administration on the job satisfaction of teachers and their institutional commitment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Volume 1, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 2252-2257. World Conference on Educational Sciences, Nicosia, North Cyprus, 4-7 February 2009 - New Trends and Issues in Educational Sciences
Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional RI. 2010. Rencana Strategi Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional Tahun 2010-2014, Jakarta.
Kian-Ping Wee, et al.. 2006. Organizational Leadership and Its Relative Influences. Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences, vol 27/2006 No.1, 241-248.
Klassena, Robert M., Rosemary Y. Fosterb, Sukaina Rajania and Carley Bowmana, 2009. Teaching in the Yukon: Exploring teachers’ efficacy beliefs, stress, and job satisfaction in a remote setting. International Journal of Educational Research Volume 48, Issue 6, 2009, Pages 381-394
Kreitner, Robert & Kinicki, Angelo.2003. Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skilsl and Best Practices. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill International Edition. Management Series. New York.
Liu, Lucy & McMurray Adela J,, 2004. Frontline Leader – The Entry Point for Leadership Development in the Manufacturing Industry. Juornal of Europan Industry Training, Vol 28 No. 2/3/4, pp.339-352
Luthans, Fred. 2006. Organizational Behavior. 12th Edition. McGraw-Hill International Edition. Management Series. New York.
Kawasaki, Jodee L., and Matt R. Raveb. 1995. “Computer-Administered Surveys in Extension”. Journal of Extension 33(June). E-Journal on-line. Melalui http://www.joe.org/june33/95.html [06/17/00]
Maman Hilman, MS Barlian dan Johar Maknun. 2010. “Evaluasi Kebijakan rasio SMK:SMA Berdasarkan Potensi dan Kebutuhan Daerah dan Keterserapan Lulusan oleh Dunia Kerja”. Data Hasil Penelitian Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia on-line.
Marshall, Patricia, 2003. Mengapa Beberapa Orang Lebih Sukses Dari Yang Lainnya?. Manusia dan Kompetensi Panduan Praktis Untuk Keunggulan Bersaing. Editor Boulter, Murray Dalziel, dan Jackie Hill. Alih Bahasa. Bern. Hidayat. Penerbit PT Bhuana Ilmu Populer. hal. 36-51.
Malthis, Robert L dan Jackson, John H., 2006. Human Reseorce Management. International Edition.
Malayu S. P. Hasibuan, 2006. Organisasi dan Motivasi: Dasar Peningkatan Produktivitas. Penerbit Bumi Aksara. Jakarta.
McShane, S.L & von Glinow, M.A. 2000. Organizational Behavior: Emerging realities for the workspace revolution. Irwin-McGraw-Hill. International Edition.
Metha, Dubinsky, dan Anderson, 2001. “Leadership style, motivation and performance in international marketing channels: An empirical investigation of the USA, Findland and Poland. European Journal of Marketing; 37, 1/2; ABI/INFORM Global. pp.50-85.
Medley, Donald M., 1987. Teacher Competence and Teacher Effectiveness. A Review of Process-Product Research. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.
Mitchell, T. R., 1997. Matching motivational strategies with organizational contexts. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 57-149.
Muhammad Surya, 2003. Psikologi Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran. Bandung: Yayasan Bhakti Winaya.
Moerad Baso, H. M., 2003. Pembinaan SDM Berbasis Kompetensi Suatu Pendekatan Strategik Dalam Upaya Peningkatan Kualitas SDM Dalam Konteks Globalisasi dan Otonomi Daerah. Manajemen Usahawan Indonesia. No. 02/Th. XXXII Februari 2003. Akreditasi: No. 134/Dikti/Kep 2001. IISSN. 0302-9859. p. 35-41.
Nina Lamatenggo, 2011. Studi Korelasional antara Penilaian Guru tentang Perilaku Kepemimpinan Kepala Sekolah dan Motivasi Kerja dengan Kinerja Guru. Teori Motivasi dan Pengukurannya, Analisis Bidang Pendidikan. Jakarta:Bumi Aksara.
Noe, Raymond, 2005. Employee Training and Development. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill International Edition.
Noe, Raymond A., John R. Hollenbeck, Barry Gerhart, and Patrick M. Wright, 2002. Human Resource Management: Gaining Competitive Advantage. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill.
Ogbonna, Emmanuel and Harris, Lloyd C. (2000), “Leadership Style, Organizational Culture and Performance: Empirical Evidence from UK Companies”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11, 4, pp. 766-788, ISSN: 0958-5192.
Ololube, N P. 2006. Teachers Job Satistaction and Motivation for School Effectivess: An Assessment. University of Helsinki Findland.
Oshagbemi, Titus, 1999. “Overall job satisfaction: how good are single versus multiple-item measures?” Journal of Managerial Psychology. Vol.14 No.5, pp. 388-403.
Palan, R. (2007) Competency Management: Teknik Mengimplementasikan Manajemen SDM Berbasis Kompetensi untuk Meningkatkan Daya Saing Organisasi, Cetakan 1, Jakarta: PPM.
Pratt, Daniel D., 1989. Three Stages of Teacher Competence: A Developmental Perspective. Journal of New Directions for Continuing Education, n43 p77-87 Fall 1989
Prick, Leo G. M. (1989) Satisfaction and stress among teachers International Journal of Educational Research Volume 13, Issue 4, 1989, Pages 363-37
Porter, Lyman W, R. M. Steers, R. T. Mowday, and P. V. Boulian. 1974. Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Among Psychiatic Technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology. 59. P. 603-609.
Porter, LW dan Lawler, EE. 1986. Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Illinois: Irwin Homewood, 1986.
Ramlan Ruvendi (2005). Imbalan dan Gaya Kepemimpinan Pengaruhnya terhadap Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan di Balai Beasr Industri Hasil Pertanian Bogor. Jurnal Ilmiah Binaniaga Vol. 01 No. 1/2005, pp. 17-26.
Robbins, Stephen P., & Judge, Timothy A., 2007. Organizational Behavior 12th, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.
Saefuddin Azwar, 1992. Reliabilitas dan Validitas, Yogyakarta : Penerbit Pustaka Pelajar.
Schermerhorn, John, James G. Hunt, and Richard N. Osbron, 1999. Management. Sixth Edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc.
So Wing-mui, Cheng May-hung, Tsang Chiao-liang, 1996. An Impact of Teaching Practice: Perceptions of Teacher Competence among Student-teachers. Journal of Primary Education Vol. 6 No, 1 & 2. The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Sudarman Danim, 2002. Inovasi Pendidikan Dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Profesionalisme Tenaga Kependidikan, Pustaka Setia, Bandung
Soekarso, Agus Sosro, Iskandar Putong, dan Cecep Hidayat, 2010. Teori Kepemimpinan. Jakarta:Mitra Wacana Media.
Spencer, Lyle M. and Signe M. Spencer, 1993. Competence Work: Model for Superior Performance. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Syafaruddin Alwi, 2001. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia: Strategi Keunggulan Kompetitif. Edisi Pertama. BPFE Yoyakarta.
Stott, Kenneth and Allan Walker, 1995. Teams Teamwork and Teambuilding: The Manager’s Complete Guide to Teams in Organisation. Prentice Hall.
Stolovitch, H. D. & Keeps, E. J., 1992. Handbook of Human Performance Technology: A Comprehensive Guide for Analyzing and Solving Performance Problems in Organizations. John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.; 1st edition.
Staw, Barry M., 1991. Psychology Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. International Edition. Maxwell Macmillan. New Delhi.
Tai-Quan Peng. 2009. Application of Structural Equation Modeling in Communication Research. Renmin: Renmim University of China.
Thweatt, Katherin S., James C. McCroskey, 1998. The Impact of Teacher Immediacy and Misbehaviors on Teacher Credibility
Torrington, Derek & Laura Hall, 1991. Personnel Management: A New Approach (2nd ed). Cambridge: Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
Tovey, M. D. and Lawlor, D. R. 2004. Training in Australia: Design, Delivery, Evaluatiuon, Management. Australia: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Townsend, T. 2002. What we have learned from 20 Years of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research, and what this means for schools and teachers. Monash: Monash University.
Tse, Herman H.M., Marie T. Dasboroughb, Neal M. Ashkanasya (2010) A multi-level analysis of team climate and interpersonal exchange relationships at work. The Leadership Quarterly Volume 19, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 195-211.
Vietzal Rivai dan Ella Jauvani Sagala, 2009. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia untuk Perusahaan 2Ed, Rajawali, Jakarta
Wexley, K. N. and Yukl, Garry, 2001. Organizational Behavior and Personnel Psychology. Richard D. Irwin. New Delhi.
Willy Susilo, 2001. Audit SDM: Perpaduan Komprehensif Auditor dan Praktisi Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Serta Pimpinan Organisasi/Perusahaan. Penerbit Percetakan Gema Amini.
Wood, Jack, Joseph Wallace, Rachid M. Zeffane, Schrmerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, 2001. Organizational Behavior A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd.
Yin Cheong Cheng, 1996. Total teacher effectiveness: new conception and improvement. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 10 Iss: 6, pp.7 – 17
Yukl, Garry. 2009. Leadership on Organization, Fifth Edition, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Thomsen, Steen dan Torben Pedersen.2000. Ownership Structure And Economic Performance In The Largest European Companies. Strategic Management Journal. Vol 21, Issue 6
Published
2014-06-30